Tugas R.A (Buku Uma Sekaran) Bab 7


Chapter 7
1. what are the differences between causal and co relational studies?
the differences between causal and co relational studies is relationships between two variables in an organizational setting, several variables that might co vary with the dependent variable have to be controlled. And correlational.

2. in what ways do lab experiments differ from field experiments?
The controls and manipulations are best done in an artificial setting-the laboratory-where the causal effect can be tested. When controls and manipulation are introduced to establish cause and effect relationships in an artificial setting. We have laboratory experimental designs also known as lab experiments. The experimental and control groups in the field experiment could be made up of the people working at several plants within in certain radius, or from the different shift in a production plant. For instance and the effects of the piece-rate system are to be studied.

3. Define the terms control and manipulation. Describe a possible lab experiment where you would need to control a variable. Further, include a possible variable over which you would have no control buy which could affect you experiment.
variable control is affecting the independent variable, manipulation s means that we created different levels of the dependent variable to asses the impact on the dependent variable.

4. Explain the possible ways in which you can control “nuisance” variables.
One way of controlling the contaminating or nuisance variables is to match the various groups by taking the confounding characteristics and deliberately spreading them across groups.

5. What is internal validity and what are the threats to internal validity?
Even the best designed lab studies could be influenced by factors that might affect the internal validity of the lab experiment. That is some confounding factors might still be present that could offer rival explanations to what is causing the dependent variable. These possible confounding factors pose a threat to internal validity. The seven major threats to internal validity are the effects of history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, selection, statistical, regression, and mortality.

6. explain the concept of “trade off between internal validity and external validity”
If we want high internal validity, we should be willing to settle for lower external validity and vice versa. To ensure both types of validity, researches usually try first to test the causal relationships in a tightly controlled artificial or lab setting, and once the relationship has been established, they try to test the causal relationship in filed experiment.

7. Explain full how you would demonstrate to machine operators and convince them that through knowledge of the operating policies and procedures reading the manual) will eliminate almost all on-the-job accidents.
Show machine operators and assured them that knowledge through operational policies and procedures, read the manual) will eliminate almost all accidents on-the-job. tell or remind the machine operators to read instruction , instructions, and also follow the existing procedures. worked well so that accidents can be reduced in the works

8. “it a control group is a part of an experimental design, one need not worry about controlling other exogenous variables. Discus this statement.
some experimental design are set up with an experimental and a control group the former alone being exposed to a treatment and not the latter. the effects of the treatment are studied by assessing the deference in the out comes-that is the posttest scores of the experimental and control groups.

9. a research wants to set up a lab experiment to test the effects of deferent kinds of leadership styles on followers attitudes. The three particular kinds of leadership styles she is interested in testing are autocratic, democratic, and participative. You are asked to enlist some students to play the part of followers. What cover story would you give the participants?
Autocracy is a form of government in which one person possesses unlimited power. in this government the government in full control, society must join the government says should not be against.
Democracy is a political government carried out either directly by the people (direct democracy) or by means of elected representatives of the people (Representative democracy).
Participation the process of involving young people in projects, policy reviews or ideas to encourage decision-making and empowerment, ownership of opinion and influence in youth services and issues that affect them and promote inclusion (particularly used amongst marginalized groups in the government.

10. “ because the external validity of lab experiments is not usual high, they are useless for investigation cause and effect relationships in organization”. Comment on this statement.
External validity of lab experiments is not usual high, they are useless for investigation cause and effect relationships in organization” if we do find a cause and effect relationship after conducting a lab experiment, can we then say with confidence that the same cause and effect relationship will also hold true in the organizational setting.

11. “covariance (i.e. , two variable varying together either positively or negatively) and control are integral aspects of experimental design.” Discuss.
because with positively and negatively we can try experimental design.

12. “the Solomon four-group design is the answer to all our research questions pertaining to cause and effect relations because it guards against all the threats to internal validity.” Comment on this statement.
the Solomon four-group design is the answer to all our research questions pertaining to cause and effect relations because it guards against all the threats to internal validity. yes, i am agree. because of the number of subjects that need to be recruited, the care with which the study to be designed the time that needs to be devoted to the experiment, and other reasons the cost the conducting such as experiment is high.

13. bellow is a note on self-esteem. After reading it, apply what you have learned in this chapter and design a study after sketching the theoretical framework.
The role of self-Esteem in efficacy
One often wonders why some people earn more than others. Economists focused on the importance of education. Basic skills, and work experience –what they power. Researches also found that self-esteem was instrumental in acquiring human capital.

we can use causal and cor relational method. firstly, we specify the function such as function X1 as education and function X2 as Basic skills, and work experience. from that we can search connection and impact from this problem.

Kelompok 1 :

1. Eskha

2. Krisman

3. Rifadi

4. Satrio

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