Tugas R.A (Buku Uma Sekaran) Bab 10


1. As a manager you have been invited to come learn the research team and frequent advice on how to improve the performance of your staff. What steps would you take to assuage their concerns even before the team sets foot in your department?

Answer :

How to improve a performance at the staff / employees is by means of holding a program such as:

a. Improving Performance

Performance is the desired outcome of behavior. Individual performance is the basis of organizational performance. Perananpenting in performance appraisal has increased workplace motivation. This performance appraisal (performance appraisal) is basically a key factor in order to develop an effective and efficient organization. Employees want and need feedback regarding their performance and assessment provides the opportunity to provide feedback to them if performance is not in accordance with the standards, the assessment provides an opportunity to review the progress of employees and to develop performance improvement plans. there are 5 (five) factors in performance assessment, namely:

a. Quality of work include: acquisition, accuracy, performance and acceptance of output

b. Quantity of Work include: Volume of output and contribution

c. Supervision required, include: need advice, direction or repairs

d. Attendance include: regularity, dapatdipercaya / reliable and timely

b. Provide motivation

Motivation is a state in the person that drives a desire individumelakukankegiatan-specific activities to achieve Motivation goal basically is the process that determines how much effort will be devoted to carrying out the work. ” Motivation or incentive to work is crucial to the achievement of something objective, then the man must be able to grow as high work motivation for employees within the company “

c. Improve discipline

Discipline itself interpreted as a willingness to someone that may arise with their own consciousness to follow the rules and regulations prevailing in the organization.

2. What is bias, and how can be reduced during interview ?

Answer : Irregularities in the interview usually refers to a mistake or inaccuracy of the data collected. Deviations can be reduced during the interview by repeating and clarifying questions we ask so that they understand the questions that we provide, and cites some of the answers to ensure a deep understanding of the response person being interviewed so that we do not deviate from the answers they give.

3. Explain the principles of wording, stating how these are important in questionnaire design, siting examples not in the book.

Answer : Principle of the words usually refer to factors such as conformance content questions, how questions and level of language used, the type and form of questions asked, order of questions, personal data sought from respondents.

· Content and purpose Questions

Variable facts will determine the types of questions will be asked. If these variables are subjective variables such as satisfaction, and engagement in which the respondents believe measuring perceptions and attitudes of the dimensions and the elements. The purpose of each question should be carefully considered so that the variable is in the measure.

·Language and Words on Questionnaire

Language questionnaire to be seen from the respondents’ level of understanding. The choice of words will depend on the level of education, the use of terms and idioms in the culture and framework of the respondents. For example, when English is the official language spoken by the two cultures, particular words may be foreign to a culture.

4. What are projective techniques and how can they be profitably used ?

Answer : This technique is useful in providing an opportunity to express their attitudes of respondents without a personal embarrassment. These techniques help the respondent to project their own attitudes and feelings on the subject aware of being studied. So projective technique plays an important role in motivation research or attitude surveys.

5. Describe the different data sources, explaining and from multiple sources related to the reliability and validity of the measures ?

Answer :

·Direct Interview

Advantages: the interview used to obtain data directly from the company. which is a communication from one worker to obtain information in accordance with the desired and by conducting interviews obtained more complete data.

Disadvantage: time consuming interview techniques and a very large cost for the sample is big enough and spread. Interviewing means of communication between the interviewer and the interviewee, this tends to generate a difference in interpretation between the two.


Advantages: the questionnaire is a research method that must be answered respondents to express his views on an issue. The use of questionnaires as data collection methods have several advantages, among them are questions that will be presented to respondents can be standardized, the respondent can answer a questionnaire on their leisure time, the question can be thought of in advance so that answers can be trusted compared with a verbal answer, and questions raised would be more accurate and uniform.
Disadvantage: the respondent can not give more details because the answer is limited to matters in question.


Advantages: With the observation that many symptoms can be investigated, the results are more accurate and difficult to argue with. Many objects are only willing to taken only with the observation data, such as too busy and less time to be interviewed or to complete a questionnaire.
Losses: Observations depends on observation and memory skills. Many events and circumstances that are difficult objects observed, especially concerning the life of a highly confidential approach for cloning.

6. How are multiple methods of data collection and from mulyiple sources related to thereliability and validity of the measures ?

Answer : For example, if the responses were collected through questionnaires. Before the instrument, or measuring devices used to collect research data, it is necessary to test the questionnaire for validity and reliability of measurement validity tersebut.Uji useful to know whether the measure is valid, the valid means of measuring the accuracy of measuring or the proper tools to measure a variable to be measured. Validity and reliability tests used to examine the data derived from a list of questions or questionnaire respondents, the validity and reliability can be proved that the list of questions in the questionnaire filled out by the respondents are representative of the population or not. There are two important conditions which apply to a questionnaire that is necessary for a valid and reliable questionnaire. A questionnaire is said to be valid if the question on a questionnaire able to express something that will be measured by the questionnaire. While a questionnaire said reliable (reliably) if a person answers to the questions are consistent or stable over time.

7. “Every data collection method has its own built-in biases. Therefore, resorting to multimethods of data collection is only going to compound the biases.” How would you critique this statement?

Answer : I think that good research requires data from multiple source data collection method. In a study of accounting rriset basically can be done through several methodologies, through a quantitative methodology, qualitative, or triangulation. To avoid confusion between the research methodology with the research methods necessary to distinguish prior understanding between the two. The research methodology is part of science that studies how the procedures for seeking truth.

8. “One way to deal with discrepancies found in the data obtained from multiple sources is to average the figures and take the mean as the value of the variable.” What is your reaction to this ?

Answer : In the data collection is sometimes we find a mismatch. Therefore we must look carefully and closely to the data, so we know whether the data is feasible or not to be used as data in a study.

9. How has the advancement in technology helped data gathering ?

Answer : Advances in technology can help us to collect data by providing easy to collect the data we need in the research, such as collecting detailed data products have been sold through the tracking of optical scanners and bar code, data searches on the Internet that provide convenience, data recording using tools such as video camera recorders and others. In some processing using electronic data processing which also provides error-free.

10. How will you use the data from observational study to reach scientific conclusions ?

Answer : Data from the information we were with a variety of processing tools such as statistical analysis with SPSS and other analysis tools for testing and our test results we will use it to take a scientific conclusion.

11. “The fewer the biases in measurement and in the data collection procedures, the more scientific the research. Comment on this statement.

Answer : We agree with that view because if the smaller size of the bias in our research, it means that our research will be increasingly closer to the truth and the more scientific and we can use as a reference for similar examination or subsequent research.

Kelompok 1 :
1. Eskha
2. Krisman
3. Rifadi

4. Satrio


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