1. Describe the hallmarks of scientific research.
e. Precision and confidence
2. What are the step in hypothetico-deductive research? Explain them, using an example not in the book.
a. Observation : first step , in which one senses that certain changes are occurring, or that samo new behavios, attitudes, and feelings are sufacing in one’s environment.
b. Preliminary information gathering : this could bo done by talking informally to several people in the work setting or to clients, or to other relevant sources, thereby gathering information on what is happening and why.
c. Theory formulation : the next step, is an attempt to integrate all the information in a logical manner, so that the reason for the problem can be conceptualized and teted.
d. Hypothesizing : at this point, one might hypothesize that if a sufficient number of items are stocked on solves, customer dissatisfaction will be considerably reduced.
e. Further scientific data collection : in onther words, further scientific data collection is needed to test the hypotheses that are generated in the study.
f. Data analysis : tha data gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses that were generated have been supported.
g. Deducation : if it was found from the data analysis that increasing the stocks was positively correlated to customer satisfacation then one can deduce that if customer satisfaction is to be increasd, the shelves have to be better stocked.
This article offers a pedagogical sequence for teaching the development of a thesis for the research report. The unit presented introduces students to a heuristic of research and shows students how to apply research techniques. The sequence elucidates the steps and loops through which a researcher passes in moving from initial topic to completed thesis. The article argues that neither research nor written report can work without a (hypo)thesis. Arguing against the currently taught inductionist models of research, it adopts Karl Popper’s model of research by conjecture and refutation. The process of conjecture and refutation is just as valid for library-based research as it is for original scientific research. The pedagogical sequence, then, shows students how to develop conjectures and how to use literature to refute or modify them in the development of a final thesis for the research report.
3. because research is very useful for every organization.
4. Hypothesis testing is called deduction research. Sometimes, hypotheses that were not originally do get generated thourgh the process.
5. because it would interfere in the management process
6. not in accordance with the existing order.
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